2. Esszett

ß is not a stylistic ligature. As the name suggests it is a ligature froms S (“ess”) and Z (“zett”) in Fraktur-Script.

• tom

Removed that part from the post. Thanks for the clarification, appreciate it. Cheers, Tom.

• I understood that that was a ligature for two ‘s’s — A long s (rendered similar to f) and a short s as in “Essen”. Maybe that’s the same thing you’re saying, but I guess my question is about the ‘z’ as opposed to a short s — which may be the same sound in germanic languages.

(Apologies, I’m on a windows computer and I don’t know how to type non-standard ASCII characters.)

• tom

According to Wikipedia, the long s is not a ligature, but a letter that developed when upper and lower case letters became established.

In case you find it useful, here’s a way to typeset the short, long, and sharp s-es:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[TS1,T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{lmodern}

\def\longs{{\fontencoding{TS1}\selectfont s}}

\begin{document}

Short s: s

Long s: \longs

Sharp s (esszett): \ss
\end{document}
3. “TeX was the first digital typesetting system that made use of ligatures.”

There were several companies doing digital ligatures long before Knuth released TeX: Autologic, Computype, Logidec, Alphatype, etc.

• tom

Thanks for pointing this out. I rephrased the part of the paragraph which was wrong. I’m curious to learn more about these other companies.

4. alfa8my

in the “significantly different” example, you should turn on utf8 instead of latin1…

• tom

Was playing with different file encodings and forgot to set it back to utf8. Thanks for the notification, I updated it.